Here are some common terms used in OpenColor, taken from our OpenColor user manual.
Refers to the color of the substrate underneath the test chart when measuring color values with a spectrophotometer.
Generic term for paper-based material often used for folding cartons, set-up boxes, and carded packaging, etc.
While "fingerprinting" refers to measuring and evaluating the print characteristics of a press, "characterizing" adds information on how a measurement was generated. In GMG OpenColor, a characterization is a container for a measurement that has been categorized according to the used measurement condition, printing process, and media.
Coated papers have a coating layer which makes the paper less absorbent and provides a better ink hold. In OpenColor, coated media are categorized according to different coating quality levels.
Media property that depends on the Media Gloss level. If your prints turn out too light or too dark, you can use this option to fine-tune the color depth.
Distance between two colors (for example printed and target color). For color management systems, Delta E values are a way to communicate the change or difference between two colors, input and output profiles, and devices.
Luminence difference of two colors (for example printed and target color). The higher Delta L, the stronger is the deviation of the lightness from the target color. In GMG software, deviations of the Black (K) channel from the target values are specified in Delta L.
A DeviceLink profile is designed for color transformations from a defined input color space to a defined output color space. A DeviceLink profile links the color spaces of two distinctive devices.
The input color space is defined by the gamut of the input device, for example, a camera. The output color space is defined by the gamut of the output device, that is, a specific printer or press and print medium. DeviceLink color transformations generally provide a higher quality. In contrast, ICC profiles use a device-independent intermediate color space, usually Lab (D50 2°), to link two device-dependent color spaces.
Difference between nominal tone value (in the data) and effective tone value (measured from the print). Can be caused by mechanical dot spreading, or simply the calibration curve chosen for making the print form (plate, cylinder).
Dot Gain Corrections
Global color correction option which allows to modify the color curves of a profile to make your proofs look lighter or darker, or more saturated in some colors. The Dot Gain Corrections do not reflect the press dot gain, but are a means to visually adjust the printing properties of the proofing system.
Dynamic Profile Calculation
The dynamic profile creation works "on demand" from GMG ColorProof, that is, a multicolor profile is calculated specifically for each image you want to proof.
Extended gamut printing refers to printing with more than the conventional CMYK inks, typically with 2 or 3 extra inks (e.g. orange/green/violet). By adding extra colors to the traditional CMYK range, printers can achieve enhanced image quality, reducing the need for custom spot colors and the number of make-readies.
Press fingerprinting means to evaluate the characteristics of the press and media used in production.
With GMG OpenColor, press fingerprinting can be significantly reduced as the ink measurements can be used across different media and ink configurations.
First Printing Dot
Proof profiling option which allows to reflect the first printing tone of the target press in a proof.
Front printing is printing an image on the front side of a media without mirroring the image. All media types have been set up for front printing except in category "Film – Reverse Print".
Color tones (or coordinates in the color space) that are used for measuring and defining a color profile.
The number of fulcrums in a profile is based on the number of patches in the test charts used for profile creation. The higher the number, the more information is included in the profile and the higher is the file size.
Part of the characterization. Describes how tones in the original are matched to tones in the print.
Relationship between input and output tone values given in percent, from 0% (unprinted substrate) to 100% (full tone). In OpenColor, gradation curves are read out from the measured test charts. Ifcase of full tone measurements, fallback gradation curves are used to compensate the missing information.
Hexachrome is a registered trademark of Pantone, Inc. and uses six colors for printing. In addition to four special process colors, Hexachrome adds orange and green inks to expand the color gamut. It is also often referred to as CMYKOG printing. The Hexachrome system consisted of adding orange and green with CMYK to expand the color gamut.
Media property describing the printability of the media and potential ink trapping. Reducing the ink adhesion reduces the ink film thickness which in turn reduces the saturation.
Process-specific ability of an ink to adhere to an already printed ink.
Last Printing Dot
Proof profiling option which allows to reflect the last printing tone of the target press in a proof.
3rd party ink database which uses an online storage system. Colibri colors can be accessed in OpenColor via a plugin to calculate a matching profile.
Media property that describes the media surface (the higher the gloss, the darker the achievable depth).
The contone proof feature Missing Dots simulates non-printing raster dots often occurring in gravure printing. This typical characteristic in gravure printing is caused by a non-ideal ink transfer from the gravure cells onto the printing medium due to a non-ideal take up of the ink by the paper and/or due to cell clogging. Missing dots are more pronounced when an uneven or low-quality medium is used, for example, for specific applications in the packaging industry.
In multicolor printing, spot colors are used additional to or instead of standard CMYK process colors, resulting in a larger (or different) gamut of the printing machine.
Profile type for proofing multicolor printing processes which use additional spot colors to or instead of standard CMYK process colors to achieve a larger (or different) color gamut.
MX DeviceLink Profile
MX profiles are DeviceLink color profiles developed by GMG. An MX profile is optimized for the specific input color space of a device and for the color accurate output on the printer or press as defined by the target printing process or standard.
MXN DeviceLink Profile
MXN profiles are multicolor profiles optimized for simulating the printing behaviour of diverse printing technologies and media types with regard to process and spot color overprints. With GMG OpenColor, you can create MXN profiles on the fly and provide them to every GMG ColorProof system on your network.
Advanced simulation feature available for MX4/MX5/MXN proof profiles to achieve an even more realistic simulation of the target printing process. Proofs might appear "too smooth" in comparison to the original print. With the Noise option, you can add artificial "errors" with a customizable frequency and intensity to the proof so that print and proof match as closely as possible.
Out-of-gamut colors are colors which cannot be adequately represented by the target output device, i. e. they are outside of the printer gamut.
Inks printed on top of each other, e.g. spot color overprints. As each printing process overprints differently, for example in terms of ink film thickness and trapping, the overprint appearance is difficult to predict on the press.
3rd party ink database which uses an online storage system in which you can control and maintain the colors associated with your brand to ensure its colors are used accurately and consistently.
Media property which refers to the white point of the reference medium used for the final output.
The print order is the sequence in which the inks are printed in the printing machine. To simulate the overprinting behavior of inks in a proof with maximum accuracy, it is essential to define the print order so that any overprint information within a measurement can be meaningfully used for the profile calculation.
Specific technique for producing printed material. GMG OpenColor supports the printing processes flexo, gravure and offset with process-specific modeling algorithms.
An image is separated into colors that are printed by a limited number of color plates (usually CMYK). Process color printing usually applies four inks to produce all other required colors whereas spot color printing uses one ink per color.
The proofing condition describes the color space of the used proof printer, media, and print mode.
The term was coined as an analogy to the term "printing condition".
Relative Ink Thickness
The Relative Ink Thickness describes the thickness of the ink film. It is a correction value relative to the 100% value.
Sending proof jobs to a proof system which is physically installed in a different location. Jobs that use OpenColor proof standards and profiles can be used in remote proofing scenarios just as other jobs with CMYK proof standards.
Reverse printing is printing a reversed image on a transparent film, usually with a white undercoat as a last layer. The film is then turned over so that the image is protected by the film.
Frequency of raster dots in the grid of a 1-bit image. As the frequency is symmetrical in the x and y axis, it is usually denoted as lines per inch (lpi). The screen frequency depends on the printing machine and medium used. The higher the frequency, the higher the printing quality. In GMG OpenColor, the screen ruling information is added to the metadata of a profile and is only required to identify the appropriate measurement data.
Technique for transforming continuous tone data to printable halftone data. In GMG OpenColor, you can define typical screening types (Flexo AM, Gravure, Offset AM/FM) for each Printing Process.
This information is added to the metadata of a profile and is required to identify the appropriate measurement data.
Single Ink Strip
Strip with single ink patches for 1-8 inks without overprint patches. All GMG single ink strips are available in a small version and in a large version, and include paper tint patches.
Primary, secondary, or tertiary colors based on 100% inks. For example, 100% Magenta is referred to as "solid Magenta"; 100% Magenta and 100% Yellow is referred to as "solid Red". You can calculate a profile without overprint information just based on a 100% patch for each printing ink, the paper tint of the media and a gradation curve. Solid ink measurements are the minimal input requirement for calculating a profile.
Measurement data which includes the spectral reflectance of an ink.
In contrast to CMYK or process colors, a specific colored ink is used in spot color printing to produce a certain color. Spot colors extend the gamut of a printing machine. In multi-color printing, spot colors are used in addition to or instead of CMYK process colors.
Spot Color Tint
Spot color printed with less than 100% coverage. Spot color tints can be printed in GMG ColorProof with a spot color tint control strip to verify the colors.
Static Profile Calculation
A static profile is created separate from printing a proof directly within OpenColor. Static profiles can be published for use in proof standards in ColorProof.
Post-press technique, sometimes performed in-line after printing which adds a top layer to a substrate to improve the surface properties. For example, gloss and matte varnishes are applied as coatings to protect the media and enhance the look and feel of the design. Surface finishing techniques can be taken account of in a proof and need to be defined in the associated Printing Process.
Target Gradation Curve
Measurement import option which allows to shift the color data of an ink to fit a specific target curve in order to simulate changed print conditions, or to compensate deficiencies in the measurement data.
Target values are the color values that are aimed for when printing a certain color under a certain printing condition. The goal of a high-quality color profile is to match the target values as close as possible.
The permissible color difference between sample and specified target color (for example, defined by a print standard).
Paper-like media without a coated layer. Generally more absorbent to ink than a coated paper, and not as smooth. For example: Typical uncoated printing papers or uncoated cardboards used in publication or packaging printing.
White front or reverse print on a non-white or transparent substrate in order to prepare a good basis for color printing. Often used for aluminum foils, corrugated cardboard, or transparent film. To proof this coating, you can add a white channel in the corresponding Proofing Condition, which is then mapped to the white channel of the input file, or add a coating channel in GMG ColorProof and assign a spot color to this channel.
Color value of a white object viewed under a standard illuminant through a standard observer angle. The white point depends on the printer gamut and the print medium.
New graphic arts standard from X-Rite to provide a means to reduce measurement discrepancies between legacy instruments previously developed by X-Rite and GretagMacbeth.